Here we compiled some brief information on recycling in alphabetical order.
Agreement in International Trade in Cotton Textiles:
The international cotton and textile market was subjected to intervention and limitations at international level for many decades. In 1962 the Agreement in International Trade in Cotton Textiles came into effect, specifying import quotas for the protection of the textile and clothing industry in the industrialized nations.
Bureau of International Recycling (BIR):
The Bureau of International Recycling is a globally-organized association of the recycling industry that represents the interests of the recycling industry at international level. Established in 1948, the BIR now represents over 750 member companies in more than 70 countries.
The collection of textiles may have various different purposes. Charitable collection serves to fill stocks of clothing. Surplus collected clothing is marketed to sorting companies and the money generated flows back to the collecting organizations, where it is utilized for statutory tasks of the charitable organizations.
Closed product loops are the solution of the future. Closed-loop recycling aims to return the raw materials of used products to the raw material loop as the basis for the manufacture of new products.
Used textiles are collected in a range of different ways. Container collection is the most widely-found form of collection.
Cradle to cradle:
The cradle to cradle principle defines a system for the manufacture of products and industrial processes that enables materials to be kept in closed loops. The initial materials should already be manufactured in a form that enables later re-utilization (Re-Cycling, ideally Up-Cycling (link)). Objectives here are environmental protection, saving resources and avoiding waste.
Products are recycled. The recycling process results in new products whose value is lower than that of the initial product. This form of recycling is referred to as downcycling.
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act:
In the EU the handling of electronic waste is regulated by the Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE directive) dated 27.01.2003, implemented in Germany in the form of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act (ElektroG).The Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act serves to significantly reduce the quantity of electrical and electronic scrap, as well as stimulating recycling and environmentally-friendly forms of disposal.
EU Waste Shipments Regulation:
The EU Waste Shipments Regulation no. 1013/2006 is aimed primarily at environmental protection and serves to reinforce disposal autarchy. In this, the intention is to reinforce disposal and recycling of the waste in the country in which it is created. The aim is to regulate the supervision and control in such a way as to retain, protect and improve the quality of the environment and human health
Fibers are used in the manufacture of textiles. Depending on their origin, fibers are subdivided into natural fibers (vegetable and animal) and chemical fibers (synthetic and semi-synthetic).
Green economy defines a way of conducting business that is oriented towards ecological sustainability, economic profitability and social fairness.
The intention is to minimize environmental risks, utilize sustainable energy sources, reduce climate-damaging emissions and combat poverty.
High-tech clothing acquires additional functions through chemical, electronic, biological or physical treatment, similar to intelligent clothing. Particular characteristics were originally developed for special occupations such as firefighters, police or military and are now worn by many people, for example in the outdoor segment.
Intelligent clothing is manufactured in a way that enables its functionality to extend beyond that of the original clothing function. “Smart clothes” refers to the combination of clothing with microelectronics. The integration of MP3 players, GPS devices or sensors that report physical conditions means that intelligent clothing is able to fulfill a health monitoring function, a protective and safety function or a communication and information function.
There are two explanations for the origin of the name “jeans”:
1) Jeans fabric (Denim) was initially manufactured in Genoa. In Italian Genoa is called “Genes”, leading to the English word jeans.
2) A second explanation traces the name not to the fabric from Genoa but to the dye “Bleu de Genues”, which gives jeans their typical blue color. “Genues” became jeans in the English language.
Life-cycle Management Act (KrWG):
The Life-cycle Management Act is a law that promotes recycling and regulates the environmentally-friendly removal of waste.
Globally-applicable agreements, such as the Multi-Fiber Agreement concluded in 1974, influenced the development and distribution of the textile industry worldwide. In the Multi-Fiber Agreement import and export quotas are set for textiles that are sold from a country A to a country B.
In open-loop recycling components of one product are used to make another product – plastic packaging used to make garden furniture.
In the presorting of used textiles impurities in the raw goods are removed as early as possible. For example, obvious household waste and electrical and electronic scrap is already separated from the collected used textiles on unloading.
Primary resources are natural resources acquired directly from nature or overwhelmingly created from natural materials.
The dictionary defines rags as old, soiled, torn pieces of fabric. In addition, the term is also used for worn, ragged and soiled clothing. Cleaning cloths are also referred to as rags.
Secondary resources are resources recovered via recycling, used as initial materials for new products. In contrast to secondary resources, primary resources are acquired directly or largely from nature.
Specialist sorting plant:
The sorting of donated clothing exceeds the financial and organizational boundaries of charitable organizations. As a consequence, there are plants that specialize in the sorting and disposal of used textiles. They have corresponding warehouse capacity, trained personnel and efficient logistics.
Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC):
The Sustainable Apparel Coalition is an association of large brands, retailers and producers from the shoe and textile industry as well as NGOs. They pursue the goal of reducing negative environmental and social influences upon the production of clothing and shoes.
Sustainable development means giving equal consideration to environmental aspects along with social and economic factors. Similar to the green economy, the three aspects of environment, economy and people are the central points of consideration. The aim is to create a world in which future generations can also enjoy an intact eco system and functioning social and economic frameworks.
In thermal utilization specific components of waste are incinerated. On the one hand this results in a reduction in volume, on the other hand energy is also generated.
The goal of upcycling is to completely utilize the initial components of used textiles and shoes, so that a recycled product of equal value is created. In other words, shoes should be used to create, for example, shoes.
Used textiles include worn clothing such as pants, shoes and T-shirts. In addition, textile goods such as curtains, bed linen and tablecloths are also included in this category.
According to §3 of the Life-cycle Management Act (KrWG), waste is defined as a material or object disposed of by its owner, or which the owner wishes to or must dispose of. The waste status (§5) of a material ends, for example, if it has completed a recycling process, it is utilized for specific purposes or a market or demand for it exists.
World Textile Agreement:
The World Textile Agreement (WTA) came into effect in 1995 as an internationally-applicable agreement of the textile and clothing industry. As this economic segment was subject to import quotas, the aim of the WTA was to regulate the gradual transition to a sector free of trade barriers.
Zero waste is the objective that people and companies should pursue in their efforts to not produce waste but create cycles in which end and waste products can become an initial product once again or a resource for new products.
Products and processes should be designed in such a way as to avoid waste and save natural resources.